Local toyons fairly quickly entered the system of centralized power. In 1677, after 40 years since the beginning of the construction of Yakutsk, the first large Yakut embassy headed by the grandson of Tygyn, Mazary Bozekov, went to the tsar to Moscow. The most prominent toyons of the local clans bowed to Fyodor III Alekseevich, the elder brother of Peter I. The ambassadors achieved great preferences for the Yakut people.
In 1679, Mazary went to Moscow for the second time. At that time, this journey lasted up to six months. They managed to get an appointment to see the tsar only in the beginning of 1680. During the second stay, the embassy achieved significant privileges. An order had been established to restrict some of the functions of the yasak (tribute) collectors and to punish them if necessary. Mazary Bozekov became the most respected of the Yakut toyons. Even the Cossack voivode himself with his attendants was afraid of him.
At the reception of the Empress
In 1767, representatives of the Yakut uluses elected a deputy to the commission of Empress Catherine II. Another descendant of Tygyn, Sofron Syranov, became a deputy.
During his work in the commission, he achieved the elimination of the burdensome order of collecting yasak by Russian service class people and transferring it to the Yakut princes themselves; the transfer of all cases, with the exception of “criminal” and “death-murder” cases, to the court of the Yakut princes itself.
The personality of Sofron Syranov was at the center of all the most important events of the Yakut history of the second half of the 18th century. He played a prominent role in the formation of the Yakut self-government. Heads of uluses received official recognition.
“The Plan on the Yakuts” and Steppe Duma
Aleksei Arzhakov, popularly known as Sehen Arzhakov, was one of the leaders of the Yakut self-government who in the 18th century defended the interests of the northern region at the highest level under the czars. In September 1789, in the Winter Palace, Catherine the Great received the head of the Borogon ulus Aleksei Arzhakov, who submitted to her a special document entitled The Plan on the Yakuts with an indication of official benefits and advantageous position for them.
His “Plan on the Yakuts” was a progressive document of his people. Arzhakov pointed out that the Yakuts in the last century "voluntarily succumbed to the Russian state, and everyone regularly pays the government-owned yasak to the treasury." Assuring of loyal allegiance to the Russian sovereigns, he, nevertheless, criticized the activities of leading officials, who were far from the needs and ills of the region and the people, which, in his opinion, did not contribute to the rapprochement of the Yakuts with Russia. By describing the socio-economic situation of Yakutia, he constructed a plan to improve the lives of its people.
Among some of the proposed points, he petitioned:
- the need to establish the position of the Yakut regional head, who would be subordinate only to the chief governor and independent of the Russian authorities of Yakutia;
- on the organization of a verbal Yakut court "to overcome the strife between uluses and conveniently resolve state and public affairs";
- only those who know the Yakut customs, language and much more should serve as police chiefs.
The "Plan on the Yakuts" was discussed at a meeting of the State Council on October 1, 1789, titled "The petition addressed to Her Imperial Majesty, from the Yakut prince, head of the Borogon ulus Aleksei Arzhakov, describing the former and present state of the Yakuts, and with the proposal of the most profitable provisions for state advantage."
Empress Catherine II, having considered the “Plan on the Yakuts” in a special rescript addressed to the Irkutsk Governor-General Peel, indicated that the choice of the Yakut leader might be allowed, as well as the opening of a school, the institution of a court of conscience and the appointment of a police officer, if possible, from among those who know the Yakut language. The aspiration of the "best people" of Yakutia to self-government, initiated by Mazary Bozekov, was already impossible to stop. In 1789 a parish school opened in Yakutsk.
On January 27, 1827, the establishment of the Steppe Duma was announced in Yakutsk. The composition of the Steppe Duma included the principal ancestor, six temporary assessors (one from each ulus in the district), six permanent assessors. Borogon ulus head Ivan Migalkin was elected the first principal ancestor.
The activities of the Yakut Steppe Duma went far beyond the limits provided for in the Charter. This assembly had become an effective body of national self-government, which held significant events and left a deep mark in history of the Yakut people.
The Steppe Duma was closed in 1838 by order of the headquarters of Eastern Siberia. From the beginning, the activity of the Duma aroused concern among the tsarist regime. The Duma pursued a fairly independent policy, trying to achieve greater rights and freedoms for the Yakut population. It opposed the interference of the tsar regional administration and the police in the internal way of life of the Yakuts, protecting their right to live according to their customs, and contributed to the development of Yakut land tenure. The practical activity of the Duma was democracy in resolving issues, a high level of consciousness of its members. The Yakut Duma gradually turned into an opposition authority, claiming a certain degree of authority to govern the region. Members of the Duma were major property owners, who had authority in uluses and had management experience.
The Yakut ASSR
Yakutia gained real statehood only after the October Revolution. By that time, a series of brilliant Yakut statesmen had grown up, who were able to defend statehood through the years of civil war, lawlessness and ruin. Isidor Barakhov, Maksim Ammosov, Platon Oiunsky - these names are lettered in history of Yakutia in gold.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the process of formation of national intelligentsia took place in Yakutia, who stood at the helm of the region in the years of revolution. After the communists came to power in Moscow and St. Petersburg, most of Siberia fell into the hands of Admiral Kolchak. During the years of the deadly civil war in the eastern part of the country, several governments changed, several new states emerged and disappeared from the map. During that devastation, the local intelligentsia, led by young communists, who were 30 years old at the most, were able to save most of Yakutia from these wars. After the end of the civil war, the last battles of which took place on the territory of our republic, Ammosov, Oiunsky and Barakhov managed to persuade Lenin and Stalin to grant Yakutia autonomy, i.e. its statehood.
On April 27, 1922, the Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the RSFSR was formed on the territory of the formerly called Yakut Region. This date was one of the most significant milestones in history of our region; the process started by Tygyn Darkhan three hundred years ago, was completed.