The Sakha Republic (Yakutia) is the largest administrative-territorial unit in the world. Its territory occupies almost 1/5 of the entire Russian Federation. As they say in Yakutia, it can fit more than five territories of France, twelve territories of Great Britain and an incalculable number of Belgium.
As they say here, Yakutia can fit more than five territories of France, twelve of Great Britain and an incalculable number of Belgium. In its present borders, the republic was established in the 20s of the 20th century, when some territories of the current Magadan, Khabarovsk Regions and the Krasnoyarsk Territory were alienated from it.
- The territory of Yakutia is 3.1 million sq km
- More than 2/5 of the territory of the republic is located above the Arctic Circle
- The total length of the coastline exceeds 4.5 thousand km
- Distance from Yakutsk to Moscow - 8468 km
- The territory of Yakutia is within three time zones
- The highest point - Mount Pobeda (3147 m) - is located on the Chersky ridge
- Almost the entire continental territory of Yakutia is a zone of continuous centuries-old permafrost. The average thickness of the frozen layer reaches 300-400 m, and in the Vilyui River basin - 1500 m.
- 2/3 of Yakutia are mountains and plateaus
- Forest resources reserves of the republic are estimated at 10.3 billion cubic meters.
Climate and Nature
The climate here is sharply continental, characterized by long winter and short summer periods. Winter temperature can drop to -70 degrees, and summer to rise to +40 degrees Celsius.
In Yakutia, there is a huge number of rivers and lakes. There are more than 700 thousand rivers,
and more than 800 thousand lakes, i.e. practically for each inhabitant of the republic there is one lake and a river. The potential hydropower potential of all rivers is estimated at almost 700 billion kW. The largest rivers are: Lena (4400 km), Vilyui (2650), Aldan (2273), Kolyma (2129), Indigirka (1726), Olekma (1436), Anabar (939) and Yana (872 km).
The territory of Yakutia is within four geographical zones: taiga forests (almost 80% of the area), tundra, forest-tundra and the Arctic desert. Dahurian larch dominates among the trees (85% of the forest area), pine, cedar elfin, spruce, birch, aspen, and Siberian cedar in the southern regions; fragrant poplar and chozenias in the mountainous regions.
The land has long been famous for its natural resources, the Cossacks, who discovered Yakutia in the 17th century in their reports, reported to the tsar about a huge amount of valuable fur-bearing animals in local forests. But not only the forests here are still rich in representatives of the animal world, walruses, seals, and polar bears inhabit the northern islands. Elk, reindeer, musk deer, bighorn sheep, red deer, brown bear, wolf and animals with valuable fur (red fox, arctic fox, sable, ermine, Siberian weasel, American mink, etc.) inhabit the continental part of the republic.
Rivers and lakes are also rich in trophy and valuable fish species, there are about 50 species, the predominant of which are salmon and whitefish. The territory of Yakutia is also known as a place of mass nesting of more than 250 species of birds. Among them are rare birds such as pink gull, white and black cranes, dough-bird, and the gyrfalcons listed in the International Red Book.
The Entire Periodic Table
There is a legend according to which God, flying over Yakutia, dropped out all his treasures, which he was to distribute throughout the world. And the reason for that act was simple - his hands were frozen.
On the vast area of Yakutia, more than 100 items of various types of mineral raw materials have been identified, of which over 1,500 deposits have been explored in only 40 types: 700 alluvial and ore deposits of gold, 60 - tin, 40 - diamonds, 40 - hard coal, 30 - oil and gas, 25 - mica-phlogopite, etc.
Today there are 900 explored deposits of stone, brown, coking coal and coal occurrences.
Specialized areas of oil and gas occurrence cover almost the entire southwestern part of the republic, where large gas, gas condensate and oil and gas fields are concentrated.
The results of recent geological surveys showed the presence in the territory of Yakutia of alternative sources of hydrocarbons (bitumen, oil shale, water-soluble gases, etc.). Important components of the mineral complex of the republic are non-ferrous and rare metals: tin, tungsten, antimony, niobium.
Administrative Territorial Division
In Yakutia, the ancient Turkic name of the territorial units has been preserved, since the districts are still officially called ulus, as it was, for example, in the empire of Genghis Khan. The republic consists of 35 administrative-territorial units: 34 uluses (districts) - Abyisky, Aldansky, Allaikhovsky, Amginsky, Anabarsky, Bulunsky, Verkhnevilyuisky, Verkhnekolymsky, Verkhoyansky, Vilyuisky, Gorny, Zhigansky, Kobyaisky, Lensky, Megino-Kangalassky, Mirninsky, Momsky, Namsky, Neryungrinsky, Nizhnekolymsky, Nyurbinsky, Oymyakonsky, Olekminsky, Oleneksky, Srednekolymsky, Suntarsky, Tattinsky, Tomponsky, Ust-Aldansky, Ust-Maysky, Ust-Yansky, Khangalassky, Churapchinsky, Eveno-Bytantaysky and 1 city of republican significance (with subordinate territories) - Yakutsk.
Yakutsk was founded in 1632 by Russian explorers on the middle reaches of the Lena River. Now the capital of the republic is a large administrative, political, economic, cultural, scientific, educational center in northeast Russia with a population of more than 300 thousand people.